Boundary Layer Climates

Boundary Layer Climates Author T. R. Oke
ISBN-10 9781134951338
Release 2002-09-11
Pages 464
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This modern climatology textbook explains those climates formed near the ground in terms of the cycling of energy and mass through systems.



Boundary Layer Climates

Boundary Layer Climates Author T. R. Oke
ISBN-10 9781134951345
Release 2002-09-11
Pages 464
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This modern climatology textbook explains those climates formed near the ground in terms of the cycling of energy and mass through systems.



Boundary Layer Climates

Boundary Layer Climates Author T. R. Oke
ISBN-10 9780415043199
Release 1987
Pages 435
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Offers a description of atmospheric layers sensitively pitched for the non-meteorological specialist in a variety of disciplines: in geography, agriculture, forestry, ecology, engineering, environment and planning.



The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

The Atmospheric Boundary Layer Author J. R. Garratt
ISBN-10 0521467454
Release 1994-04-21
Pages 316
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The book is a moderately advanced text dealing with the physics and dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer.



Atmosphere Weather and Climate

Atmosphere  Weather  and Climate Author Roger Graham Barry
ISBN-10 0415271711
Release 2003
Pages 421
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Atmosphere, Weather and Climateis the essential introduction to weather processes and climatic conditions around the world, their observed variability and changes, and projected future trends. Extensively revised and updated, this eighth edition retains its popular tried and tested structure while incorporating recent advances in the field. From clear explanations of the basic physical and chemical principles of the atmosphere, to descriptions of regional climates and their changes, Atmosphere, Weather and Climatepresents a comprehensive coverage of global meteorology and climatology.



Heat Islands

Heat Islands Author Lisa Mummery Gartland
ISBN-10 9781136564208
Release 2012-05-16
Pages 208
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Heat islands are urban and suburban areas that are significantly warmer than their surroundings. Traditional, highly absorptive construction materials and a lack of effective landscaping are their main causes. Heat island problems, in terms of increased energy consumption, reduced air quality and effects on human health and mortality, are becoming more pressing as cities continue to grow and sprawl. This comprehensive book brings together the latest information about heat islands and their mitigation. The book describes how heat islands are formed, what problems they cause, which technologies mitigate heat island effects and what policies and actions can be taken to cool communities. Internationally renowned expert Lisa Gartland offers a comprehensive source of information for turning heat islands into cool communities. The author includes sections on cool roofing and cool paving, explains their benefits in detail and provides practical guidelines for their selection and installation. The book also reviews how and why to incorporate trees and vegetation around buildings, in parking lots and on green roofs.



Climates and Societies A Climatological Perspective

Climates and Societies   A Climatological Perspective Author M. Yoshino
ISBN-10 9789401710558
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 408
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The impact of climate on human activities and the effect of humans on cli mate are two of the most important areas of inquiry in climatology. These interactions conducted through physical, chemical and biological process es were described as early as Roman and Greek times. Marcus Vitruvius (75-25 B. C. ), a famous Roman engineer and architect, made the following observation about the climatic conditions necessary for founding a city: Land ideal for the health is slightly elevated and there should be neither fog nor frost. The direction of the slope and the distance to the swamps, lakes, and beaches must also be considered. The prevailing wind directions, observed by a wind tower at the center of the city, like Horologium at Athens, should be taken into consideration in city planning. The main and narrow streets should be placed in the middle angle of the two prevailing wind directions. Then the location of the Pantheons and squares should be decided. The influence of humans on climate was a major subject for discussion in the 19th century, inspired in part, by the rapid industrial growth and expanding deforestation of the time. D. L. Howard wrote brilliant pieces on the climate of London in the 1830s, while G . P. Marsh discussed the effects of forests on precipitation in the U. S . A. in the second half of the 19th century.



Climate A Very Short Introduction

Climate  A Very Short Introduction Author Mark Maslin
ISBN-10 9780191653933
Release 2013-06-27
Pages 152
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In this wide-ranging Very Short Introduction to climate, Mark Maslin considers all aspects of the global climate system, exploring and explaining the different components that control climate on Earth. He considers the processes that allow energy to reach the Earth and how it is redistributed around the planet by the ocean-atmosphere system; the relationship and differences between climate and the weather; how climate has affected life on Earth and human settlements; and the cyclic and quasi-cyclic features of climate such as the Milankovitch cycles and El Nino. He concludes by touching on the issue of climate change, and outlines some of the approaches that are now being taken to tackle it. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.



Energy and Climate in the Urban Built Environment

Energy and Climate in the Urban Built Environment Author M. Santamouris
ISBN-10 9781134257973
Release 2013-06-17
Pages 410
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Both the number and percentage of people living in urban areas is growing rapidly. Up to half of the world's population is expected to be living in a city by the end of the century and there are over 170 cities in the world with populations over a million. Cities have a huge impact on the local climate and require vast quantities of energy to keep them functioning. The urban environment in turn has a big impact on the performance and needs of buildings. The size, scale and mechanism of these interactions is poorly understood and strategies to mitigate them are rarely implemented. This is the first comprehensive book to address these questions. It arises out of a programme of work (POLISTUDIES) carried out for the Save programme of the European Commission. Chapters describe not only the main problems encountered such as the heat island and canyon effects, but also a range of design solutions that can be adopted both to improve the energy performance and indoor air quality of individual buildings and to look at aspects of urban design that can reduce these climatic effects. The book concludes with some examples of innovative urban bioclimatic buildings. The project was co-ordinated by Professor Mat Santamouris from the University of Athens who is also the editor of the book. Other contributions are from the University of Thessaloniki, Greece, ENTPE, Lyons, France and the University of Stuttgart, Germany.



Designing High Density Cities

Designing High Density Cities Author Edward Ng
ISBN-10 9781136546013
Release 2009-12-16
Pages 384
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Compact living is sustainable living. High-density cities can support closer amenities, encourage reduced trip lengths and the use of public transport and therefore reduce transport energy costs and carbon emissions. High-density planning also helps to control the spread of urban suburbs into open lands, improves efficiency in urban infrastructure and services, and results in environmental improvements that support higher quality of life in cities. Encouraging, even requiring, higher density urban development is a major policy and a central principle of growth management programmes used by planners around the world. However, such density creates design challenges and problems. A collection of experts in each of the related architectural and planning areas examines these environmental and social issues, and argues that high-density cities are a sustainable solution. It will be essential reading for anyone with an interest in sustainable urban development.



Principles of Environmental Physics

Principles of Environmental Physics Author John Monteith
ISBN-10 0080924794
Release 2007-10-25
Pages 440
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Environmental Physics concerns the description and analysis of physical processes that establish the conditions in which all species of life survive and reproduce. The subject involves a synthesis of mathematical relations that describe the physical nature of the environment and the many biological responses that environments evoke. Environmental Physics provides a basis for understanding the complex responses of plants and animals to environmental change. International concern with climate change has made both politicans and the general public much more aware of the impact of local and global weather on all aspects of domestic life, industry and commerce. Environmental Physics has become more widely used by biologists, atmospheric scientists and climate modellers to specify interations between surfaces and the atmosphere. This new edition contains further material on causes of global warming, applications of remote sensing, and the carbon and water cycles of crops and forests. * Presents a unique synthesis of micrometeorology and ecology in its widest sense. * Deals quantitatively with the impact of weather on living systems but also with the interactions between them that are a central feature of life on earth * Includes an up-to-date bibliography and review of recent micrometeorological applications in forestry, ecology, hydrology and agriculture * Includes numerical problems and worked examples



The Surface Climates of Canada

The Surface Climates of Canada Author William G. Bailey
ISBN-10 0773516727
Release 1997
Pages 369
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In the opening chapters contributors lay out the large-scale context of the physical climate of Canada, introducing the processes, balances, and dynamic linkages between the surface and atmosphere that create and maintain the diversity of surface climates found in Canada as well as outlining the nature of the physical processes that operate near the ground's surface. Individual chapters are dedicated to snow and ice - the almost universal surface cover in Canada - and the other major natural surface environments of Canada: ocean and coastal zones, fresh water lakes, wetlands, arctic islands, low arctic and subarctic lands, forests, and alpine environments. The final part of the book considers those surface environments that have been strongly influenced by human activity, such as agricultural lands and urban environments, and examines the prospects for future climate change. Bringing together for the first time a wide range of scholarship by leading climatologists, The Surface Climates of Canada will be an indispensable tool for understanding Canada's surface climates and the processes responsible for their creation and control. Contributors include Brian D. Amiro (AECL), W.G. Bailey (Simon Fraser), Richard Bello (York), Terry J. Gillespie (Guelph), Barry E. Goodison (Atmospheric Environment Service), F. Kenneth Hare (emeritus professor, Toronto), L.D. Danny Harvey (Toronto), Owen Hertzman (Dalhousie), Peter M. Lafleur (Trent), J. Harry McCaughey (Queen's), Linda Mortsch (Environment Canada), R. Ted Munn (Toronto), D. Scott Munro (Toronto), Atsumu Ohmura (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Timothy R. Oke (UBC), John W. Pomeroy (Environment Canada), Alexander W. Robertson (Canadian Forest Service), Nigel T. Roulet (McGill), Wayne R. Rouse (McMaster), Ian R. Saunders (Simon Fraser), William M. Schertzer (Environment Canada), Hans-Peter Schmid (Indiana), David L. Spittlehouse (BC Ministry of Forests), Douw G. Steyn (UBC), John L. Walmsley (Atmospheric Environment Service), John D. Wilson (Alberta), Ming-Ko Woo (McMaster).



The Urban Climate

The Urban Climate Author Helmut E. Landsberg
ISBN-10 0080924190
Release 1981-08-28
Pages 275
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The Urban Climate aims to summarize analytical studies directed toward physical understanding of the rural-urban differences in the atmospheric boundary layer. Attempts to quantify conditions have met with some success. There is certainly a clear understanding of the physical relations that create the climatic differences of urbanized areas. Although some of the earlier classical studies are cited here, the emphasis is on the work done during the last decade and a half. This volume comprises 11 chapters, beginning with an introductory chapter discussing the literature surrounding the topic, its historical development, and the problem of local climate modification. The second chapter presents an assessment of the urban atmosphere on a synoptic and local scale, and examines the observational procedures involved. The following chapters then go on to discuss urban air composition; urban energy fluxes; the urban heat island; the urban wind field; models of urban temperature and wind fields; moisture, clouds, and hydrometeors; urban hydrology; special aspects of urban climate; and finally, urban planning. This book will be of interest to practitioners in the fields of meteorology, urban planning, and urban climatology.



Fundamentals of Weather and Climate

Fundamentals of Weather and Climate Author Robin McIlveen
ISBN-10 9780199215423
Release 2010-05-27
Pages 632
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Most of us generally fail to comprehend the enormous scale, power, and complexity of the atmosphere. With the effects of global climate change becoming increasingly apparent, an understanding of the processes that underpin our weather and climate is vital. Offering an engaging and insightful treatment of the behavior of the lower atmosphere, Fundamentals of Weather and Climate takes a quantitative approach to describing the mechanisms involved. Beginning with an overview of the atmosphere and its components, it introduces the physics that drive weather systems before setting those principles in the context of specific systems of differing scales and latitudes. Finally, the text draws this information together in relation to the problem of anthropogenic climate change. Fundamentals of Weather and Climate is enhanced by extensive pedagogical features including end-of-chapter questions, key points, and custom-drawn illustrations that enable students to more easily visualize the processes and interactions described. A Companion Website offers resources for students and instructors. New to this edition: * Increased coverage of mid- and low-latitude weather systems, global circulation and regional systems, climate modelling and prediction, and thermodynamics * More detailed explanations of key mathematical concepts * Fully worked solutions to problems * New end-of-chapter summaries



Atmospheric Science

Atmospheric Science Author John M. Wallace
ISBN-10 0080499538
Release 2006-03-24
Pages 504
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Atmospheric Science, Second Edition, is the long-awaited update of the classic atmospheric science text, which helped define the field nearly 30 years ago and has served as the cornerstone for most university curricula. Now students and professionals alike can use this updated classic to understand atmospheric phenomena in the context of the latest discoveries, and prepare themselves for more advanced study and real-life problem solving. This latest edition of Atmospheric Science, has been revamped in terms of content and appearance. It contains new chapters on atmospheric chemistry, the Earth system, the atmospheric boundary layer, and climate, as well as enhanced treatment of atmospheric dynamics, radiative transfer, severe storms, and global warming. The authors illustrate concepts with full-color, state-of-the-art imagery and cover a vast amount of new information in the field. Extensive numerical and qualitative exercises help students apply basic physical principles to atmospheric problems. There are also biographical footnotes summarizing the work of key scientists, along with a student companion website that hosts climate data; answers to quantitative exercises; full solutions to selected exercises; skew-T log p chart; related links, appendices; and more. The instructor website features: instructor’s guide; solutions to quantitative exercises; electronic figures from the book; plus supplementary images for use in classroom presentations. Meteorology students at both advanced undergraduate and graduate levels will find this book extremely useful. Full-color satellite imagery and cloud photographs illustrate principles throughout Extensive numerical and qualitative exercises emphasize the application of basic physical principles to problems in the atmospheric sciences Biographical footnotes summarize the lives and work of scientists mentioned in the text, and provide students with a sense of the long history of meteorology Companion website encourages more advanced exploration of text topics: supplementary information, images, and bonus exercises



Desert Development

Desert Development Author Yehuda Gradus
ISBN-10 9789400953963
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 340
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The fact that approximately one-third of the world's land mass is arid desert may be congenial for the camel and the cactus, but not for people. Nevertheless, well over half a billion people, or 15% of the world's population live in arid desert areas. If the world's population were distributed evenly over the land surface, we would expect to find about 30% of the population inhabiting arid desert areas. Does the fact that 'only' 15% of the world's population live in an arid desert environment reflect the harshness of the environment? Or is it a testimony to the adaptability and ingenuity of mankind? Do we view the glass as half-full? Or half-empty? The contributors to Desert Development: Man and Technology in Sparselands adopt the position that the cup is half-full and, in fact, could be filled much more. Indeed, many arid desert zones do thrive with life, and given appropriate technological develop ment, such areas could support even greater popUlations. While the dire Malthusian prediction that rapid world population growth exceeds the carrying capacity of existent resource systems has gained popularity (typified by the 1972 Club of Rome book, Limits to Growth), there is a growing body of serious work which rejects such pessimistic 'depletion' models, in favor of models which are mildly optimistic.



Understanding Climate Change

Understanding Climate Change Author André Berger
ISBN-10 9780875904573
Release 1989-01-01
Pages 187
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 52. The principal aim of this symposium was to describe the contributions which are made by each of the disciplines represented in the IUGG to the study of climate change. In order to present a balanced program, the Symposium was composed of invited reviews but other viewpoints were put forward during general discussion. The themes covered reflect the interests of the seven IUGG Associations and include volcanism; biogeochemistry; land hydrology; modeling climate, past and present; cryosphere; paleoclimates; land?]surface processes; tropical oceans and the global atmosphere; clouds and atmospheric radiation; aeronomy and planetary atmospheres; and modeling future climate changes.