Communicating Risks and Benefits

Communicating Risks and Benefits Author Baruch Fischhoff
ISBN-10 0160901790
Release 2012-03-08
Pages 240
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Effective risk communication is essential to the well-being of any organization and those people who depend on it. Ineffective communication can cost lives, money and reputations. Communicating Risks and Benefits: An Evidence-Based User’s Guide provides the scientific foundations for effective communications. The book authoritatively summarizes the relevant research, draws out its implications for communication design, and provides practical ways to evaluate and improve communications for any decision involving risks and benefits. Topics include the communication of quantitative information and warnings, the roles of emotion and the news media, the effects of age and literacy, and tests of how well communications meet the organization’s goals. The guide will help users in any organization, with any budget, to make the science of their communications as sound as the science that they are communicating.



Interpreting Health Benefits and Risks

Interpreting Health Benefits and Risks Author Eric Rifkin
ISBN-10 9783319115443
Release 2014-11-14
Pages 236
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This timely guide to communication in patient-centered medicine argues for greater clarity in explaining health risks versus benefits of an array of screening tests, procedures, and drug regimens. It reviews the growing trend toward patients' involvement in their own care, particularly in terms of chronic conditions, and details approaches physicians can use to prepare patients (and themselves) for collaborative decision-making based on informed choices and clear, meaningful knowledge. Chapters apply this lens to a wide range of common interventions as contentious as estrogen replacement therapy and antibiotics, and as widely prescribed as the daily aspirin and the annual physical. With this goal in mind, the authors also introduce an innovative decision-making tool that translates risks and benefits into a clear graphic format for fewer chances of miscommunication or misunderstanding. Among the topics covered: Involving the patient in decision making. Towards a universal decision aid. BRCT: the Benefit/Risk Characterization Theater. Breast Cancer Screening—Mammograms. Prostate Cancer Screening. Colon cancer screening with colonoscopy. Screening for and treating dementia. Statins, cholesterol, and coronary heart disease. Physicians in family and internal medicine will find Interpreting Health Benefits and Risks: A Practical Guide to Facilitate Doctor- Patient Communication a valuable resource for communicating with patients and new possibilities for working toward their better health and health education. This book considers several common and important situations where faulty decision-making makes overtreatment a serious risk. Clear, fair, referenced, and useful information is provided. And a powerful intuitive technique is introduced which allows patient and doctor to talk as equals as they work together in the exam room. The authors emphasize that some patients who have been fully educated will still accept high risks of harm for a small chance of avoiding premature death. But as this book is accepted and its ideas and technique are extended, I feel sure that net harm to patients will be curtailed. And what is more, the integrity of the decision-making process will be improved. —Thomas Finucane, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine



Vaccinophobia and Vaccine Controversies of the 21st Century

Vaccinophobia and Vaccine Controversies of the 21st Century Author Archana Chatterjee
ISBN-10 9781461474388
Release 2013-06-25
Pages 500
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Vaccinophobia and Vaccine Controversies of the 21st Century Archana Chatterjee, editor Once hailed as a medical miracle, vaccination has come under attack from multiple fronts, including occasionally from within medicine. And while the rates of adverse reactions remain low, suggestions that vaccines can cause serious illness (and even death) are inspiring parents to refuse routine immunizations for their children--ironically, exposing them and others to potentially serious illness. Vaccinophobia and Vaccine Controversies of the 21st Century explains clearly how this state of affairs came into being, why it persists, and how healthcare professionals can best respond. Current findings review answers to bedrock questions about known adverse events, what vaccine additives are used for, and real and perceived risks involved in immunization. Perspectives representing pediatricians, family practitioners, nurses, parents, pharmacy professionals, the CDC, and the public health community help the reader sort out legitimate from irrational concerns. In-depth analyses discuss the possibility of links with asthma, cancer, Guillain-Barre syndrome, SIDS, and, of course, autism. Included in the coverage: Communicating vaccine risks and benefits The vaccine misinformation landscape in family medicine Perceived risks from live viral vaccines The media's role in vaccine misinformation Autoimmunity, allergies, asthma, and a relationship to vaccines Vaccines and autism: the controversy that won't go away The conundrums described here are pertinent to practitioners in pediatrics, family medicine, primary care, and nursing to help families with informed decision making. In addition, Vaccinophobia and Vaccine Controversies of the 21st Century should be read by trainees and researchers in child development and maternal and child health as the book's issues will have an impact on future generations of children and their families.



Understanding the Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceuticals

Understanding the Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceuticals Author Institute of Medicine
ISBN-10 0309179769
Release 2007-08-14
Pages 98
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All pharmaceutical products have inherent risks, and their use involves trade-offs between their therapeutic benefits and their risks. However, the public has a limited understanding of the benefits and risks of drugs, and many individuals believe that drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) carry no risks. The FDA is responsible for evaluating and balancing the potential risks of drugs with their potential benefits. Assessing, managing, and communicating the benefit-risk profile of a pharmaceutical product is a complex and nuanced scientific, political, and sociological challenge. Once the assessment is made, the FDA is then responsible for managing how to communicate these risks and make healthcare decisions based on them. To explore these issues, the Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation conducted a public workshop entitled Understanding the Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceuticals, with the broad goals of gaining a better understanding of the current system used to evaluate benefit and risk, and to identify opportunities for improvement. This workshop was held in Washington, D.C., on May 30-31, 2006. The benefit-risk profiles of pharmaceuticals are constantly evolving as new data are collected throughout the life cycle of a drug. Discussions during the workshop focused on the following: (1) premarket assessment, during which clinical trial data are used to assess benefit and risk; (2) communication of that information to prescribing physicians and their patients; (3) healthcare decisions made by prescribing physicians and their patients; and (4) the accumulation of benefit-risk information from postmarketing experience, which feeds back into the other phases. Understanding the Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceuticals: Workshop Summary explains in detail the discussions during this workshop.



Risk Communication And Health Psychology

Risk  Communication And Health Psychology Author Berry, Dianne
ISBN-10 9780335213511
Release 2004-05-01
Pages 173
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This is the first book to clearly assess the increasingly important area of communication of risk in the health sector. We are moving away from the days when paternalistic doctors managed healthcare without involving patients in decision making. With the current emphasis on patient empowerment and shared decision making, patients want and need reliable, comprehensive and understandable information about their conditions and treatment. In order to make informed decisions, the people concerned must understand the risks and benefits associated with possible treatments. But the challenge for health professionals is how best to communicate this complex medical information to diverse audiences.



Communicating Risks to the Public

Communicating Risks to the Public Author R.E Kasperson
ISBN-10 9789400919525
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 482
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Risk communication: the evolution of attempts Risk communication is at once a very new and a very old field of interest. Risk analysis, as Krimsky and Plough (1988:2) point out, dates back at least to the Babylonians in 3200 BC. Cultures have traditionally utilized a host of mecha nisms for anticipating, responding to, and communicating about hazards - as in food avoidance, taboos, stigma of persons and places, myths, migration, etc. Throughout history, trade between places has necessitated labelling of containers to indicate their contents. Seals at sites of the ninth century BC Harappan civilization of South Asia record the owner and/or contents of the containers (Hadden, 1986:3). The Pure Food and Drug Act, the first labelling law with national scope in the United States, was passed in 1906. Common law covering the workplace in a number of countries has traditionally required that employers notify workers about significant dangers that they encounter on the job, an obligation formally extended to chronic hazards in the OSHA's Hazard Communication regulation of 1983 in the United States. In this sense, risk communication is probably the oldest way of risk manage ment. However, it is only until recently that risk communication has attracted the attention of regulators as an explicit alternative to the by now more common and formal approaches of standard setting, insuring etc. (Baram, 1982).



Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty in the Assessment of Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceutical Products

Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty in the Assessment of Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceutical Products Author Institute of Medicine
ISBN-10 9780309310031
Release 2014-12-19
Pages 150
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Despite the extensive body of evidence that informs regulatory decisions on pharmaceutical products, significant uncertainties persist, including the underlying variability in human biology, factors associated with the chemistry of a drug, and limitations in the research and clinical trial process itself that might limit the generalizability of results. As a result, regulatory reviewers are consistently required to draw conclusions about a drug's safety and efficacy from imperfect data. Efforts are underway within the drug development community to enhance the evaluation and communication of the benefits and risks associated with pharmaceutical products, aimed at increasing the predictability, transparency, and efficiency of pharmaceutical regulatory decision making. Effectively communicating regulatory decisions necessarily includes explanation of the impact of uncertainty on decision making. On February 12 and May 12, 2014, the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation held public workshops to advance the development of more systematic and structured approaches to characterize and communicate the sources of uncertainty in the assessment of benefits and risks, and to consider their implications for pharmaceutical regulatory decisions. Workshop presentations and discussions on February 12 were convened to explore the science of identifying and characterizing uncertainty in scientific evidence and approaches to translate uncertainties into decisions that reflect the values of stakeholders. The May 12 workshop presentations and discussions explored tools and approaches to communicating about scientific uncertainties to a range of stakeholders in the drug development process. Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty in the Assessment of Benefits and Risks of Pharmaceutical Products summarizes the presentation and discussion of both events. This report explores potential analytical and communication approaches and identifies key considerations on their development, evaluation, and incorporation into pharmaceutical benefit- risk assessment throughout the entire drug development lifecycle.



Communicating Clearly about Science and Medicine

Communicating Clearly about Science and Medicine Author John Clare
ISBN-10 9781351950329
Release 2017-03-02
Pages 208
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Scientific communication is challenging. The subject matter is complex and often requires a certain level of knowledge to understand it correctly; describing hazard ratios, interpreting Kaplan Meier curves and explaining confounding factors is different from talking about a new car or clothing range. Processes, for example in clinical trials, are laborious and tedious and knowing how much of the detail to include and exclude requires judgement. Conclusions are rarely clear cut making communicating statistical risk and probability tough, especially to non-statisticians and non-scientists such as journalists. Communicating Clearly about Science and Medicine looks at these and many more challenges, then introduces powerful techniques for overcoming them. It will help you develop and deliver impactful presentations on medical and scientific data and tell a clear, compelling story based on your research findings. It will show you how to develop clear messages and themes, while adhering to the advice attributed to Einstein: 'Make things as simple as possible...but no simpler.' John Clare illustrates how to communicate clearly the risks and benefits contained in a complex data set, and balance the hope and the hype. He explains how to avoid the 'miracle cure' or 'killer drug' headlines which are so common and teaches you how to combine the accuracy of peer-to-peer reviewed science with the narrative skills of journalism.



Improving Drug Safety A Joint Responsibility

Improving Drug Safety     A Joint Responsibility Author Rolf Dinkel
ISBN-10 9783642612503
Release 2013-03-07
Pages 338
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As the focus on pharmaceuticals has broadened from concern for their cost and effectiveness to their real and potential risks and benefits, a critical question has been raised: whose responsibility is it to improve drug safety? In April 1990, this question became the theme for a conference at Wolfsberg, Switzerland, near the shores of Lake Constance. Called an "international dialogue conference" by its organizers, the meeting brought together leaders from the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities, academia, medicine, consumer organizations and the media. Opening addresses were given by representatives of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations (IFPMA), the Swiss International Pharmaceutical Agency, and the RAD-AR Consortium. This book documents the papers presented and discussions held at this conference, which took the topic of risks and benefits of drug therapy one step further to responsibility. It includes a rich menu of issues for those who care about the evaluation of drug therapy, the ethics behind it, the expectations of the patient, and the role of traditional and nontraditional drug safety communica tions. The ideas expressed here come from different parts of the world but relate to common drug safety problems, observations, and scientific assessments; they provide insights into innovative approaches, cautious changes, and desired actions. The papers in this volume are broadly divided into conceptual perspectives (ethics, how the knowledge about drug risks and benefits is generated and appraised, the expectations in drug safety) and operational perspectives (communication, discussion, and action).



Risk Communication and Vaccination

Risk Communication and Vaccination Author Institute of Medicine
ISBN-10 9780309057905
Release 1997-07-10
Pages 44
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Risk Communication and Vaccination has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Risk Communication and Vaccination also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Risk Communication and Vaccination book for free.



Risk Communication and Health Psychology

Risk  Communication and Health Psychology Author Dianne Berry
ISBN-10 9780335224265
Release 2004-05-01
Pages 185
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"...this text...will become a reference for years to come." Health Expectations This is the first book to clearly assess the increasingly important area of communication of risk in the health sector. We are moving away from the days when paternalistic doctors managed healthcare without involving patients in decision making. With the current emphasis on patient empowerment and shared decision making, patients want and need reliable, comprehensive and understandable information about their conditions and treatment. In order to make informed decisions, the people concerned must understand the risks and benefits associated with possible treatments. But the challenge for health professionals is how best to communicate this complex medical information to diverse audiences.The book examines: Risk: defining and explaining how the term is used by different disciplines, how its meanings have changed over time and how the general public understand it Health communication and the effects on health behaviours Effective risk communication to individuals and the wider public Effectiveness of patient information leaflets, and strategies for improving oral and written health communications The cognitive and emotional issues at stake for patients in understanding risk and health information The use of new technologies in risk and health communication Ethical issues, and the future of risk communication Using examples from disciplines including psychology, sociology, health, medicine, pharmacy, statistics and business and management, this book is key reading for students who need to understand the effect of risk in health psychology as well as for health professionals interested in doctor-patient communication, informed consent and patient welfare.



Responding to Community Outrage

Responding to Community Outrage Author Peter M. Sandman
ISBN-10 9780932627513
Release 1993
Pages 113
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Responding to Community Outrage has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Responding to Community Outrage also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Responding to Community Outrage book for free.



Mad Cows and Mother s Milk

Mad Cows and Mother s Milk Author Douglas Alan Powell
ISBN-10 0773516190
Release 1997-01-01
Pages 308
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An evaluation of the role of risk communication in dealing with public controversies - this text presents a number of case studies of risk including the "mad cow crises" in 1996 and what is commonly known as hamburger disease, caused by a virulent form of the E.coli bacterium.



Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics

Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Author Roger Walker
ISBN-10 9780702048487
Release 2011-10-24
Pages 928
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Now in its fifth edition, this best-selling, multidisciplinary textbook continues to draw on the skills of pharmacists and clinicians to present optimal drug regimens. The authors integrate an understanding of the disease processes with an appreciation of pathophysiological processes, clinical pharmacy and the evidence base. New to this edition: Stronger emphasis on understanding both the prescribing process and the clinical pharmacy process. All chapters completely revised and updated. Thirty-eight leading new authors. Features: Key points boxes at the beginning of every chapter Case study tests at the end of every chapter Chapters co-authored by pharmacists and clinicians Organised by body system Consistent, clearly signposted chapter layout ‘...a unique and valuable support for all those involved or interested in drug therapy. This is a textbook that no university or pharmacy department, particularly those with employees studying at any level, and no pharmacist trying to develop their knowledge base should be without." Dr Chris Green and John Sexton, The Pharmaceutical Journal Now in its fifth edition, this best-selling, multidisciplinary textbook continues to draw on the skills of pharmacists and clinicians to present optimal drug regimens. The authors integrate an understanding of the disease processes with an appreciation of pathophysiological processes, clinical pharmacy and the evidence base. New to this edition: Stronger emphasis on understanding both the prescribing process and the clinical pharmacy process. All chapters completely revised and updated. Thirty-eight leading new authors. Features: Key points boxes at the beginning of every chapter Case study tests at the end of every chapter Chapters co-authored by pharmacists and clinicians Organised by body system Consistent, clearly signposted chapter layout ‘...a unique and valuable support for all those involved or interested in drug therapy. This is a textbook that no university or pharmacy department, particularly those with employees studying at any level, and no pharmacist trying to develop their knowledge base should be without." Dr Chris Green and John Sexton, The Pharmaceutical Journal Stronger emphasis on understanding both the prescribing process and the clinical pharmacy process. All chapters completely revised and updated. Thirty-eight leading new authors.



Risk Communication

Risk Communication Author Regina E. Lundgren
ISBN-10 9781118645727
Release 2013-05-17
Pages 416
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A fully updated handbook on effectively communicating environmental, safety, and health risks Written by two well-known risk practitioners with over twenty-five years' experience in the field, this fully updated Fifth Edition of Risk Communication: A Handbook for Communicating Environmental, Safety, and Health Risks offers sound, scientific research with practical, hands-on advice for those in the public and private sectors. Highly accessible and easy to understand, this must-read includes real-life examples of such headline-making events as the tsunami and radiation release in Japan in 2011, the BP oil disaster in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, and extreme weather events, along with the lessons learned from them. It offers new chapters on public health campaigns, and on the use and effectiveness of social media for risk communication purposes. Risk Communication is divided into five self-contained parts: Part I provides background information for understanding the basic theories and practices of risk communication Part II explains how to plan a risk communication effort Part III describes how to put risk communication into action Part IV discusses how to evaluate risk communication efforts, including techniques for measuring success Part V highlights special cases in risk communication, including disasters and other emergencies, international risk communication, and public health campaigns An ideal introduction to the field, this book is also a welcome reference for those involved in communicating environmental, safety, and health risks in government, industry, and academia.



Communicating the Benefits and Risks of Prescription Drugs

Communicating the Benefits and Risks of Prescription Drugs Author David B. McCallum
ISBN-10 OCLC:26707622
Release 1989
Pages 47
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Communicating the Benefits and Risks of Prescription Drugs has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Communicating the Benefits and Risks of Prescription Drugs also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Communicating the Benefits and Risks of Prescription Drugs book for free.



Risk Communication

Risk Communication Author M. Granger Morgan
ISBN-10 0521002567
Release 2002
Pages 351
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People today must make decisions about many health, safety, and environmental risks. Nuclear power, HIV/AIDS, radon, vaccines, climate change, and emerging infectious diseases are just some issues that may face them in the news media, ballot box, or doctor's office. In order to make sound choices they need to get good information. Because their time is limited, that information has to be carefully selected and clearly presented. This book provides a systematic approach for risk communicators and technical experts, hoping to serve the public by providing information about risks. The procedure uses approaches from risk and decision analysis to identify the most relevant information; it uses approaches from psychology and communication theory to ensure that it is understood. This book is written in nontechnical terms, designed to make the approach feasible for anyone willing to try it. It is illustrated with successful communications, on a variety of topics.