Membrane Recycling

Membrane Recycling Author CIBA Foundation Symposium
ISBN-10 9780470718438
Release 2009-09-14
Pages 192
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The Novartis Foundation Series is a popular collection of the proceedings from Novartis Foundation Symposia, in which groups of leading scientists from a range of topics across biology, chemistry and medicine assembled to present papers and discuss results. The Novartis Foundation, originally known as the Ciba Foundation, is well known to scientists and clinicians around the world.



The Involvement of ARF6 in Rapid Membrane Recycling During Drosophila Spermatocyte Cytokinesis

The Involvement of ARF6 in Rapid Membrane Recycling During Drosophila Spermatocyte Cytokinesis Author
ISBN-10 OCLC:676922241
Release 2002
Pages
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Cytokinesis involves constriction of the cell at the equator. Without decreasing in volume, a spherical cell requires a net increase in the surface area during this constriction. The constriction is driven by formation of an actomyosin contractile ring, and the surface increase by addition of membrane during the formation of the cleavage furrow. Both events depend on the central spindle microtubules at the midzone of the spindle and, in particular, on the centralspindlin protein complex. The communication between the central spindle microtubules and the actomyosin ring involves binding of a GAP and a GEF for RhoA to the centralspindlin kinesin Pavarotti/MKLP1. However, it is still unclear which molecular machinery connects the mitotic spindle to membrane trafficking during cleavage furrow ingression. ARF6 is a member of the ARF family of small GTPases, and previous studies suggest that it is an important regulator of membrane trafficking through the endocytic pathway, and cortical Actin remodelling. I generated an arf6 null mutant in Drosophila. arf6 null mutants survive to adulthood without obvious morphological defects, indicating that ARF6 is not required for Drosophila somatic development. However, ARF6 is required for cytokinesis in Drosophila spermatocytes. The centralspindlin kinesin Pavarotti, identified as an ARF6 interactor in a Yeast-2-Hybrid assay, binds ARF6 in GST pulldowns, and interacts genetically with the arf6 mutant. ARF6 localizes to the plasma membrane and a population of early and recycling endosomes. During cytokinesis, ARF6 is enriched on recycling endosomes at the central spindle. arf6 mutants form a cleavage furrow during cytokinesis, which later regresses. Cytokinesis in arf6 mutant spermatocytes lacks the rapid plasma membrane expansion observed during normal divisions. The results of this study suggest that ARF6 might promote rapid recycling of endosomal membrane stores at the central spindle to the plasma membrane during cytokinesis. AR.



Rab GTPases and Membrane Trafficking

Rab GTPases and Membrane Trafficking Author Guangpu Li
ISBN-10 9781608053650
Release 2012-01-01
Pages 180
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Ypt/Rab GTPases form the largest branch of the Ras-related small GTPase superfamily and regulate intracellular membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes. Since their discovery over two decades ago, a wealth of information has accumulated about the roles that Ypt/Rab proteins play in vesicular transport steps, including vesicle budding, movement, and fusion. In recent years, Ypt/Rab GTPases and membrane trafficking have been discovered to play an important role in other cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell growth and differentiation. Additionally, Rab GTPases have been implicated in various human diseases, ranging from diabetes to cancer. This e-book provides a timely update on the rapidly developing field and discusses all functional aspects of Ypt/Rab GTPases. the 12 chapters cover well-characterized Ypts/Rabs involved in both exocytic and endocytic pathways as well as newly identified and uncharacterized Rab GTPases. a comprehensive picture about how each Ypt/Rab controls multiple vesicular trafficking steps via interactions with multiple effectors is conveyed to the reader's mind. This e-book is the first ever volume focused on the Ypt/Rab GTPases and should provide a useful resource for researchers, students and teachers interested in the field.



Biology of the Lysosome

Biology of the Lysosome Author John B. Lloyd
ISBN-10 0306454408
Release 1996
Pages 416
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Updates the understanding of the biological and physiological role of the lysosomal system, furthering the effort to systemize the voluminous information being generated by research. The core section of the 12 review papers consider lysosome metabolism; other sections describe how the lysosome compo



Cytology and Cell Physiology

Cytology and Cell Physiology Author Geoffrey Howard Bourne
ISBN-10 0123643783
Release 1987
Pages 864
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International Review of Cytology presents current advances and comprehensive reviews in cell biology-both plant and animal. Articles address structure and control of gene expression, nucleocytoplasmic interactions, control of cell development and differentiation, and cell transformation and growth. Authored by some of the foremost scientists in the field, each volume provides up-to-date information and directions for future research.



Membrane Fusion

Membrane Fusion Author Jan Wilschut
ISBN-10 0824783018
Release 1990-09-28
Pages 938
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A broad overview of recent progress in membrane fusion research, treating the subject from the fields of biophysics, biochemistry, cell biology, virology, and biotechnology. Featuring sections on the general properties of membranes and applications of membrane fusion techniques, this sourcebook outl



Hydrogen Recycling at Plasma Facing Materials

Hydrogen Recycling at Plasma Facing Materials Author C.H. Wu
ISBN-10 0792366301
Release 2000-11-30
Pages 363
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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 15-19, 1999



The Plant Vacuole

The Plant Vacuole Author
ISBN-10 0080561799
Release 1997-05-06
Pages 464
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Advances in Botanical Research is a multi-volume publication that brings together reviews by recognized experts on subjects of importance to those involved in botanical research. For more than thirty years, Advances in Botanical Research has earned a reputation for excellence in the field. For those working on plant pathology, Advances in Plant Pathology has also carved a niche in the plant sciences during its decade of publication.Academic Press has merged Advances in Plant Pathology into Advances in Botanical Research. The plant science community will find that the merger of these two serials will provide one comprehensive resource for the field. To ensure complete coverage, John Andrews and Inez Tommerup, the editors of Advances in Plant Pathology, have joined the editorial board of the new series, which will include equal coverage of plant pathology and botany in both thematic and mixed volumes. The first few volumes of the new series will be slanted toward botany or plant pathology; however, future eclectic volumes will be fully integrated.The resulting synergy of these two serials greatly benefits the plant science community by providing a more comprehensive resource under one roof. The joint aim is to continue to include the very best articles, thereby maintaining the status of a high impact factor review series.



Ultrastructure of the Male Urogenital Glands

Ultrastructure of the Male Urogenital Glands Author Allessandro Riva
ISBN-10 9781461526247
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 201
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Male urogenital glands (also named male accessory sex glands) have received relatively little attention from electron microscopists, with the possible exception of the prostate gland. Moreover, even though comparative studies have clearly shown that these glands exhibit species-dependent features, very few studies, scattered over various publications, are available on the urogenital glands of man. This volume, the 11th of the series on Electron Microscopy in Biology and Medicine, presents an unprecedented collection of information on the functional microanatomy and cytoarchitecture of these organs in humans. Through the integration of transmission and scanning electron microscopy with a variety of modern techniques, it documents the most important aspects of the histophysiology of these glands from their development to some pathological alterations. In order to cover some key mechanisms of their cell biology, such as the action of sex hormones, the epithelio-mesenchymal interactions, and the dynamic of the secretory process, reports on human organs have been supplemented by some studies on experimental animals. The outstanding level of the contributions and the quality of the illustrations make this book, which has been compiled by some of the world authorities on the topic, a work of reference for students, scientists, and professionals interested in biomedical foundations of andrology, as well as a stimulus for future research in this exciting and relatively neglected chapter of human reproduction.



Reviews and Perspectives in Physiology 2002

Reviews and Perspectives in Physiology 2002 Author Physiological Society (Great Britain)
ISBN-10 0521525810
Release 2002-07-29
Pages 138
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Brings together the Perspectives and Topical Reviews published during 2000 in The Journal of Physiology.



Endosomes

Endosomes Author Ivan Dikic
ISBN-10 0387399518
Release 2008-05-07
Pages 158
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Endosomes are a heterogeneous population of endocytic vesicles and tubules that have captivated the interest of biologists for many years, partly due to their important cellular functions and partly due to their intriguing nature and dynamics. Endosomes represent a fascinating interconnected network of thousands of vesicles that transport various cargoes, mainly proteins and lipids, to distant cellular destinations. How endosomes function, what co-ordinates the molecular determinants at each step of their dynamic life cycle and what their biological and medical relevance is, are among the questions addressed in this book.



Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling

Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling Author
ISBN-10 OCLC:873872758
Release 2011
Pages
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Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn), . Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness &> 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be



Lysosomes

Lysosomes Author Eric Holtzman
ISBN-10 9781489925404
Release 2013-11-11
Pages 440
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In 1976 I wrote a monograph on lysosomes (Lysosomes: A Survey, Springer Verlag, Vienna) that was intended as an up-to-date, comprehensive survey. Whatever success I may have achieved then in fulfilling that intention, even the effort now would be foolhardy. The literature has grown so rapidly in the past decade that I certainly could not even read all of the essential papers, let alone understand and analyze them. My goal here, therefore, is simply to introduce the major features of lysosomes at a level I hope will be useful both to I;ldvanced students and to researchers interested in obtaining a broad background. This is in keeping with the design of the Cellular Organelles series: the series is more a set of advanced texts than of review monographs. This design carries with it the decision not to support each point by refer ences to the original literature. I apologize for the injustice involved in such a decision but feel that in any event it would be impossibly unwieldy to cite, adequately and in a balanced manner, the contributions of the vast network of researchers responsible for the information upon which I draw.



Specialised membrane domains of plasmodesmata plant intercellular nanopores

Specialised membrane domains of plasmodesmata  plant intercellular nanopores Author Jens Tilsner
ISBN-10 9782889193684
Release 2014-12-17
Pages
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Plasmodesmata (PD) are plant-specific intercellular nanopores defined by specialised domains of the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), both of which contain unique proteins, and probably different lipid compositions than the surrounding bulk membranes. The PD membranes form concentric tubules with a minimal outer diameter of only 50 nm, and the central ER strand constricted to ~10-15 nm, representing one of the narrowest stable membrane tubules in nature. This unique membrane architecture poses many biophysical, structural and functional questions. PM continuity across PD raises the question as to how a locally confined membrane site is established and maintained at PD. There is increasing evidence that the PM within PD may be enriched in membrane ‘rafts’ or TET web domains. Lipid rafts often function as signalling platforms, in line with the emerging view of PD as central players in plant defense responses. Lipid-lipid immiscibility could also provide a mechanism for membrane sub- compartmentalisation at PD. Intricate connections of the PM to the wall and the underlying cytoskeleton and ER may anchor the specialised domains locally. The ER within PD is even more strongly modified. Its extreme curvature suggests that it is stabilised by densely packed proteins, potentially members of the reticulon family that tubulate the cortical ER. The diameter of the constricted ER within PD is similar to membrane stalks in dynamin-mediated membrane fission during endocytosis and may need to be stabilised against spontaneous rupture. The function of this extreme membrane constriction, and the reasons why the ER is connected between plant cells remain unknown. Whilst the technically challenging search for the protein components of PD is ongoing, there has been significant recent progress in research on biological membranes that could benefit our understanding of PD function. With this Research Topic, we therefore aim to bring together researchers in the PD field and those in related areas, such as membrane biophysics, membrane composition and fluidity, protein-lipid interactions, lateral membrane heterogeneity, lipid rafts, membrane curvature, and membrane fusion/fission. We wish to address questions such as: - What mechanisms restrict lateral mobility of proteins and lipids along the PD membranes? - How can specific proteins be targeted to and turned over from membrane domains with restricted lateral access? - What elements (lipids, proteins, membrane curvature, packing order, thickness etc.) may contribute to the identity of PD membranes? - How do the structural and functional features of PD compare to other ER-PM contact sites? - How is the high curvature of the PD ER stabilised and what are possible functions of such a tightly constricted membrane tubule? - Do PD need to be prevented from spontaneous collapse and sealing? - What technologies are available to address these questions that can underpin PD research? We welcome interested individuals to contribute their expertise and develop new hypotheses on the particular biological and biophysical questions posed by PD. We are particularly looking for articles (Original Research Articles, Technical Advances and State-of-the-Art reviews) that would expand on or challenge current perceptions of PD and stimulate discussion.



GTPases Regulating Membrane Dynamics

GTPases Regulating Membrane Dynamics Author William Edward Balch
ISBN-10 0121828093
Release 2005
Pages 692
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GTPases that regulate the myriad of membrane fission events that facilitate the assembly and disassembly of COPII (Sar1), COPI (ARF) and clathrin coats (dynamin) involved in exocytic and endocytic trafficking pathways and mitochrondrial organization remain a major challenge for future investigations to understand membrane architecture of eukaryotic cells. This volume of MIE provides a comprehensive set of articles describing the use and application of state-of-the-art methodologies to identify and characterize these GTPases and their rapidly expanding list of regulators and effectors. Methodologies focused on biochemical, molecular and advanced imaging techniques provide a wealth of investigational tools for those currently in the field and those entering the field. Many of the methodologies are generally applicable to study of these GTPases in vitro and in vivo to elucidate function in regulation of cell proliferation and signaling in normal tissue and in disease. *Comprehensive collection of GTPases (ARF, Sar1, Dynamin) GTPases involved in vesicle coat assembly and membrane fission *Identification and characterization of GTPase GEFs, GAPs and effectors *General methodologies to study GTPase function in vitro and in vivo



Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water M53

Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water  M53 Author AWWA Staff
ISBN-10 9781613000175
Release 2011-01-12
Pages 257
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Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water M53 has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water M53 also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water M53 book for free.



Treatment of MF Residuals for Contaminant Removal Prior to Recycle

Treatment of MF Residuals for Contaminant Removal Prior to Recycle Author Michael J. MacPhee
ISBN-10 9781583212141
Release 2002
Pages 167
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Treatment of MF Residuals for Contaminant Removal Prior to Recycle has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Treatment of MF Residuals for Contaminant Removal Prior to Recycle also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Treatment of MF Residuals for Contaminant Removal Prior to Recycle book for free.