Neural Network Methods in Natural Language Processing

Neural Network Methods in Natural Language Processing Author Yoav Goldberg
ISBN-10 9781627052955
Release 2017-04-17
Pages 309
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Neural networks are a family of powerful machine learning models. This book focuses on the application of neural network models to natural language data. The first half of the book (Parts I and II) covers the basics of supervised machine learning and feed-forward neural networks, the basics of working with machine learning over language data, and the use of vector-based rather than symbolic representations for words. It also covers the computation-graph abstraction, which allows to easily define and train arbitrary neural networks, and is the basis behind the design of contemporary neural network software libraries. The second part of the book (Parts III and IV) introduces more specialized neural network architectures, including 1D convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, conditioned-generation models, and attention-based models. These architectures and techniques are the driving force behind state-of-the-art algorithms for machine translation, syntactic parsing, and many other applications. Finally, we also discuss tree-shaped networks, structured prediction, and the prospects of multi-task learning.



Neural Network Methods in Natural Language Processing

Neural Network Methods in Natural Language Processing Author Yoav Goldberg
ISBN-10 9781681731551
Release 2017-04-17
Pages 309
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Neural networks are a family of powerful machine learning models. This book focuses on the application of neural network models to natural language data. The first half of the book (Parts I and II) covers the basics of supervised machine learning and feed-forward neural networks, the basics of working with machine learning over language data, and the use of vector-based rather than symbolic representations for words. It also covers the computation-graph abstraction, which allows to easily define and train arbitrary neural networks, and is the basis behind the design of contemporary neural network software libraries. The second part of the book (Parts III and IV) introduces more specialized neural network architectures, including 1D convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, conditioned-generation models, and attention-based models. These architectures and techniques are the driving force behind state-of-the-art algorithms for machine translation, syntactic parsing, and many other applications. Finally, we also discuss tree-shaped networks, structured prediction, and the prospects of multi-task learning.



Handbook of Natural Language Processing

Handbook of Natural Language Processing Author Robert Dale
ISBN-10 0824790006
Release 2000-07-25
Pages 964
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This study explores the design and application of natural language text-based processing systems, based on generative linguistics, empirical copus analysis, and artificial neural networks. It emphasizes the practical tools to accommodate the selected system.



Subsymbolic Natural Language Processing

Subsymbolic Natural Language Processing Author Risto Miikkulainen
ISBN-10 0262132907
Release 1993
Pages 391
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Risto Miikkulainen draws on recent connectionist work in language comprehension tocreate a model that can understand natural language. Using the DISCERN system as an example, hedescribes a general approach to building high-level cognitive models from distributed neuralnetworks and shows how the special properties of such networks are useful in modeling humanperformance. In this approach connectionist networks are not only plausible models of isolatedcognitive phenomena, but also sufficient constituents for complete artificial intelligencesystems.Distributed neural networks have been very successful in modeling isolated cognitivephenomena, but complex high-level behavior has been tractable only with symbolic artificialintelligence techniques. Aiming to bridge this gap, Miikkulainen describes DISCERN, a completenatural language processing system implemented entirely at the subsymbolic level. In DISCERN,distributed neural network models of parsing, generating, reasoning, lexical processing, andepisodic memory are integrated into a single system that learns to read, paraphrase, and answerquestions about stereotypical narratives.Miikkulainen's work, which includes a comprehensive surveyof the connectionist literature related to natural language processing, will prove especiallyvaluable to researchers interested in practical techniques for high-level representation,inferencing, memory modeling, and modular connectionist architectures.Risto Miikkulainen is anAssistant Professor in the Department of Computer Sciences at The University of Texas atAustin.



Neural Networks for Vision Speech and Natural Language

Neural Networks for Vision  Speech and Natural Language Author R. Linggard
ISBN-10 9789401123600
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 442
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This book is a collection of chapters describing work carried out as part of a large project at BT Laboratories to study the application of connectionist methods to problems in vision, speech and natural language processing. Also, since the theoretical formulation and the hardware realization of neural networks are significant tasks in themselves, these problems too were addressed. The book, therefore, is divided into five Parts, reporting results in vision, speech, natural language, hardware implementation and network architectures. The three editors of this book have, at one time or another, been involved in planning and running the connectionist project. From the outset, we were concerned to involve the academic community as widely as possible, and consequently, in its first year, over thirty university research groups were funded for small scale studies on the various topics. Co-ordinating such a widely spread project was no small task, and in order to concentrate minds and resources, sets of test problems were devised which were typical of the application areas and were difficult enough to be worthy of study. These are described in the text, and constitute one of the successes of the project.



The Handbook of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing

The Handbook of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing Author Alexander Clark
ISBN-10 9781118448670
Release 2013-04-24
Pages 650
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This comprehensive reference work provides an overview of the concepts, methodologies, and applications in computational linguistics and natural language processing (NLP). Features contributions by the top researchers in the field, reflecting the work that is driving the discipline forward Includes an introduction to the major theoretical issues in these fields, as well as the central engineering applications that the work has produced Presents the major developments in an accessible way, explaining the close connection between scientific understanding of the computational properties of natural language and the creation of effective language technologies Serves as an invaluable state-of-the-art reference source for computational linguists and software engineers developing NLP applications in industrial research and development labs of software companies



Learning to Rank for Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing

Learning to Rank for Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing Author Hang Li
ISBN-10 9781627055857
Release 2014-10-01
Pages 121
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Learning to rank refers to machine learning techniques for training a model in a ranking task. Learning to rank is useful for many applications in information retrieval, natural language processing, and data mining. Intensive studies have been conducted on its problems recently, and significant progress has been made. This lecture gives an introduction to the area including the fundamental problems, major approaches, theories, applications, and future work. The author begins by showing that various ranking problems in information retrieval and natural language processing can be formalized as two basic ranking tasks, namely ranking creation (or simply ranking) and ranking aggregation. In ranking creation, given a request, one wants to generate a ranking list of offerings based on the features derived from the request and the offerings. In ranking aggregation, given a request, as well as a number of ranking lists of offerings, one wants to generate a new ranking list of the offerings. Ranking creation (or ranking) is the major problem in learning to rank. It is usually formalized as a supervised learning task. The author gives detailed explanations on learning for ranking creation and ranking aggregation, including training and testing, evaluation, feature creation, and major approaches. Many methods have been proposed for ranking creation. The methods can be categorized as the pointwise, pairwise, and listwise approaches according to the loss functions they employ. They can also be categorized according to the techniques they employ, such as the SVM based, Boosting based, and Neural Network based approaches. The author also introduces some popular learning to rank methods in details. These include: PRank, OC SVM, McRank, Ranking SVM, IR SVM, GBRank, RankNet, ListNet & ListMLE, AdaRank, SVM MAP, SoftRank, LambdaRank, LambdaMART, Borda Count, Markov Chain, and CRanking. The author explains several example applications of learning to rank including web search, collaborative filtering, definition search, keyphrase extraction, query dependent summarization, and re-ranking in machine translation. A formulation of learning for ranking creation is given in the statistical learning framework. Ongoing and future research directions for learning to rank are also discussed. Table of Contents: Learning to Rank / Learning for Ranking Creation / Learning for Ranking Aggregation / Methods of Learning to Rank / Applications of Learning to Rank / Theory of Learning to Rank / Ongoing and Future Work



Bayesian Analysis in Natural Language Processing

Bayesian Analysis in Natural Language Processing Author Shay Cohen
ISBN-10 9781627054218
Release 2016-06-01
Pages 274
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Natural language processing (NLP) went through a profound transformation in the mid-1980s when it shifted to make heavy use of corpora and data-driven techniques to analyze language. Since then, the use of statistical techniques in NLP has evolved in several ways. One such example of evolution took place in the late 1990s or early 2000s, when full-fledged Bayesian machinery was introduced to NLP. This Bayesian approach to NLP has come to accommodate for various shortcomings in the frequentist approach and to enrich it, especially in the unsupervised setting, where statistical learning is done without target prediction examples. We cover the methods and algorithms that are needed to fluently read Bayesian learning papers in NLP and to do research in the area. These methods and algorithms are partially borrowed from both machine learning and statistics and are partially developed "in-house" in NLP. We cover inference techniques such as Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and variational inference, Bayesian estimation, and nonparametric modeling. We also cover fundamental concepts in Bayesian statistics such as prior distributions, conjugacy, and generative modeling. Finally, we cover some of the fundamental modeling techniques in NLP, such as grammar modeling and their use with Bayesian analysis.



Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing

Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing Author Christopher D. Manning
ISBN-10 0262133601
Release 1999
Pages 680
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An introduction to statistical natural language processing (NLP). The text contains the theory and algorithms needed for building NLP tools. Topics covered include: mathematical and linguistic foundations; statistical methods; collocation finding; word sense disambiguation; and probalistic parsing.



Semi Supervised Learning and Domain Adaptation in Natural Language Processing

Semi Supervised Learning and Domain Adaptation in Natural Language Processing Author Anders Søgaard
ISBN-10 9781608459865
Release 2013-05-01
Pages 103
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This book introduces basic supervised learning algorithms applicable to natural language processing (NLP) and shows how the performance of these algorithms can often be improved by exploiting the marginal distribution of large amounts of unlabeled data. One reason for that is data sparsity, i.e., the limited amounts of data we have available in NLP. However, in most real-world NLP applications our labeled data is also heavily biased. This book introduces extensions of supervised learning algorithms to cope with data sparsity and different kinds of sampling bias. This book is intended to be both readable by first-year students and interesting to the expert audience. My intention was to introduce what is necessary to appreciate the major challenges we face in contemporary NLP related to data sparsity and sampling bias, without wasting too much time on details about supervised learning algorithms or particular NLP applications. I use text classification, part-of-speech tagging, and dependency parsing as running examples, and limit myself to a small set of cardinal learning algorithms. I have worried less about theoretical guarantees ("this algorithm never does too badly") than about useful rules of thumb ("in this case this algorithm may perform really well"). In NLP, data is so noisy, biased, and non-stationary that few theoretical guarantees can be established and we are typically left with our gut feelings and a catalogue of crazy ideas. I hope this book will provide its readers with both. Throughout the book we include snippets of Python code and empirical evaluations, when relevant.



Natural Language Processing with Python

Natural Language Processing with Python Author Steven Bird
ISBN-10 9780596555719
Release 2009-06-12
Pages 504
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This book offers a highly accessible introduction to natural language processing, the field that supports a variety of language technologies, from predictive text and email filtering to automatic summarization and translation. With it, you'll learn how to write Python programs that work with large collections of unstructured text. You'll access richly annotated datasets using a comprehensive range of linguistic data structures, and you'll understand the main algorithms for analyzing the content and structure of written communication. Packed with examples and exercises, Natural Language Processing with Python will help you: Extract information from unstructured text, either to guess the topic or identify "named entities" Analyze linguistic structure in text, including parsing and semantic analysis Access popular linguistic databases, including WordNet and treebanks Integrate techniques drawn from fields as diverse as linguistics and artificial intelligence This book will help you gain practical skills in natural language processing using the Python programming language and the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) open source library. If you're interested in developing web applications, analyzing multilingual news sources, or documenting endangered languages -- or if you're simply curious to have a programmer's perspective on how human language works -- you'll find Natural Language Processing with Python both fascinating and immensely useful.



Linguistic Fundamentals for Natural Language Processing

Linguistic Fundamentals for Natural Language Processing Author Emily M. Bender
ISBN-10 9781627050128
Release 2013-06-01
Pages 184
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Many NLP tasks have at their core a subtask of extracting the dependencies—who did what to whom—from natural language sentences. This task can be understood as the inverse of the problem solved in different ways by diverse human languages, namely, how to indicate the relationship between different parts of a sentence. Understanding how languages solve the problem can be extremely useful in both feature design and error analysis in the application of machine learning to NLP. Likewise, understanding cross-linguistic variation can be important for the design of MT systems and other multilingual applications. The purpose of this book is to present in a succinct and accessible fashion information about the morphological and syntactic structure of human languages that can be useful in creating more linguistically sophisticated, more language-independent, and thus more successful NLP systems. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments / Introduction/motivation / Morphology: Introduction / Morphophonology / Morphosyntax / Syntax: Introduction / Parts of speech / Heads, arguments, and adjuncts / Argument types and grammatical functions / Mismatches between syntactic position and semantic roles / Resources / Bibliography / Author's Biography / General Index / Index of Languages



Natural Language Processing with Java

Natural Language Processing with Java Author Richard M Reese
ISBN-10 9781784398941
Release 2015-03-27
Pages 262
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If you are a Java programmer who wants to learn about the fundamental tasks underlying natural language processing, this book is for you. You will be able to identify and use NLP tasks for many common problems, and integrate them in your applications to solve more difficult problems. Readers should be familiar/experienced with Java software development.



Neural Networks and Speech Processing

Neural Networks and Speech Processing Author David P. Morgan
ISBN-10 9781461539506
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 391
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We would like to take this opportunity to thank all of those individ uals who helped us assemble this text, including the people of Lockheed Sanders and Nestor, Inc., whose encouragement and support were greatly appreciated. In addition, we would like to thank the members of the Lab oratory for Engineering Man-Machine Systems (LEMS) and the Center for Neural Science at Brown University for their frequent and helpful discussions on a number of topics discussed in this text. Although we both attended Brown from 1983 to 1985, and had offices in the same building, it is surprising that we did not meet until 1988. We also wish to thank Kluwer Academic Publishers for their profes sionalism and patience, and the reviewers for their constructive criticism. Thanks to John McCarthy for performing the final proof, and to John Adcock, Chip Bachmann, Deborah Farrow, Nathan Intrator, Michael Perrone, Ed Real, Lance Riek and Paul Zemany for their comments and assistance. We would also like to thank Khrisna Nathan, our most unbi ased and critical reviewer, for his suggestions for improving the content and accuracy of this text. A special thanks goes to Steve Hoffman, who was instrumental in helping us perform the experiments described in Chapter 9.



Lifelong Machine Learning

Lifelong Machine Learning Author Zhiyuan Chen
ISBN-10 9781627058773
Release 2016-11-07
Pages 145
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Lifelong Machine Learning (or Lifelong Learning) is an advanced machine learning paradigm that learns continuously, accumulates the knowledge learned in previous tasks, and uses it to help future learning. In the process, the learner becomes more and more knowledgeable and effective at learning. This learning ability is one of the hallmarks of human intelligence. However, the current dominant machine learning paradigm learns in isolation: given a training dataset, it runs a machine learning algorithm on the dataset to produce a model. It makes no attempt to retain the learned knowledge and use it in future learning. Although this isolated learning paradigm has been very successful, it requires a large number of training examples, and is only suitable for well-defined and narrow tasks. In comparison, we humans can learn effectively with a few examples because we have accumulated so much knowledge in the past which enables us to learn with little data or effort. Lifelong learning aims to achieve this capability. As statistical machine learning matures, it is time to make a major effort to break the isolated learning tradition and to study lifelong learning to bring machine learning to new heights. Applications such as intelligent assistants, chatbots, and physical robots that interact with humans and systems in real-life environments are also calling for such lifelong learning capabilities. Without the ability to accumulate the learned knowledge and use it to learn more knowledge incrementally, a system will probably never be truly intelligent. This book serves as an introductory text and survey to lifelong learning.



Handbook of Neural Computation

Handbook of Neural Computation Author Pijush Samui
ISBN-10 9780128113196
Release 2017-07-18
Pages 658
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Handbook of Neural Computation explores neural computation applications, ranging from conventional fields of mechanical and civil engineering, to electronics, electrical engineering and computer science. This book covers the numerous applications of artificial and deep neural networks and their uses in learning machines, including image and speech recognition, natural language processing and risk analysis. Edited by renowned authorities in this field, this work is comprised of articles from reputable industry and academic scholars and experts from around the world. Each contributor presents a specific research issue with its recent and future trends. As the demand rises in the engineering and medical industries for neural networks and other machine learning methods to solve different types of operations, such as data prediction, classification of images, analysis of big data, and intelligent decision-making, this book provides readers with the latest, cutting-edge research in one comprehensive text. Features high-quality research articles on multivariate adaptive regression splines, the minimax probability machine, and more Discusses machine learning techniques, including classification, clustering, regression, web mining, information retrieval and natural language processing Covers supervised, unsupervised, reinforced, ensemble, and nature-inspired learning methods



Cognitive Approach to Natural Language Processing

Cognitive Approach to Natural Language Processing Author Bernadette Sharp
ISBN-10 9780081023433
Release 2017-05-31
Pages 234
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As natural language processing spans many different disciplines, it is sometimes difficult to understand the contributions and the challenges that each of them presents. This book explores the special relationship between natural language processing and cognitive science, and the contribution of computer science to these two fields. It is based on the recent research papers submitted at the international workshops of Natural Language and Cognitive Science (NLPCS) which was launched in 2004 in an effort to bring together natural language researchers, computer scientists, and cognitive and linguistic scientists to collaborate together and advance research in natural language processing. The chapters cover areas related to language understanding, language generation, word association, word sense disambiguation, word predictability, text production and authorship attribution. This book will be relevant to students and researchers interested in the interdisciplinary nature of language processing. Discusses the problems and issues that researchers face, providing an opportunity for developers of NLP systems to learn from cognitive scientists, cognitive linguistics and neurolinguistics Provides a valuable opportunity to link the study of natural language processing to the understanding of the cognitive processes of the brain