Political Determinants of Income Inequality in Emerging Democracies

Political Determinants of Income Inequality in Emerging Democracies Author Takeshi Kawanaka
ISBN-10 9789811002571
Release 2016-01-14
Pages 112
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This study explores why democratization does not necessarily result in inequality reduction in emerging democracies and reveals the determinants of income inequality in emerging democracies, where the average level of inequality continues to be higher and where there is a larger variance of inequality levels than in advanced democracies. Apart from economic, demographic, and social factors, the book highlights political factors that obstruct redistributive policies. In contrast to conventional studies on advanced democracies, which emphasize the relations between different classes, this study asserts that several political factors cause malfunctioning of democratic institutions at various phases of the political process in emerging democracies: multidimensional preferences, the failure of the political market, and weak state capacity. The book employs econometric methods to examine the effects of these political factors. The results indicate their significant effects. The multilevel analysis using the World Values Survey demonstrates that multidimensional preferences, operationalized as ethnic fractionalization, weaken demand for income inequality. Political market quality and state capacity are measured by the age of the largest opposition party, and the Quality of Government indicator is used for the unbalanced panel analysis covering the 1985–2012 period for 75 democracies. Both political market quality and state capacity reduce inequality, but the latter takes more time to show its effect.

Inequality Democracy and Economic Development

Inequality  Democracy  and Economic Development Author Manus I. Midlarsky
ISBN-10 052157675X
Release 1997-12-04
Pages 368
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This 1997 volume examines the relationship between inequality and democracy, looking at questions raised as early as Aristotle through to the present day.

Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy Entries A F

Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy  Entries A F Author R. J. Barry Jones
ISBN-10 0415243505
Release 2001-01-01
Pages 1818
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This important new work is the first comprehensive reference to the rapidly developing field of international political economy [IPE]. Featuring over 1200 A-Z entries, the coverage encompasses the full range of issues, concepts, and institutions associated with IPE in its various forms. Comprehensively cross-referenced and indexed, each entry provides suggestions for further reading along with guides to more specialized sources. Selected entries include: * African Development Bank * benign neglect * Black Monday * casino capitalism * debt management * efficiency * floating exchange rates * General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT] *information society/economy * Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries [OPEC] * Microsoft * multinational corporations, definitions * NATO * patents * rent-seeking * Schellin, Thomas *tax havens * trusts * Value-Added Tax [VAT] * zero-sum games * and many more.

Making Democratic Governance Work

Making Democratic Governance Work Author Pippa Norris
ISBN-10 9781107016996
Release 2012-08-27
Pages 281
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"Is democratic governance good for economic prosperity? Does it accelerate progress towards social welfare and human development? Does it generate a peace-dividend and reduce conflict at home? Within the international community, democracy and governance are widely advocated as intrinsically desirable goals. Nevertheless, alternative schools of thought dispute their consequences and the most effective strategy for achieving critical developmental objectives. This book argues that both liberal democracy and state capacity need to be strengthened to ensure effective development, within the constraints posed by structural conditions. Liberal democracy allows citizens to express their demands, hold public officials to account and rid themselves of ineffective leaders. Yet rising public demands that cannot be met by the state generate disillusionment with incumbent officeholders, the regime, or ultimately the promise of liberal democracy ideals. Thus governance capacity also plays a vital role in advancing human security, enabling states to respond effectively to citizen's demands"--

Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy

Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy Author R. J. Barry Jones
ISBN-10 9781136927393
Release 2002-09-11
Pages 1864
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This three volume Encyclopedia offers the first comprehensive and authoritative survey of the rapidly developing field of international political economy. Its entries cover the major theoretical issues and analytical approaches within the field. The set also provides detailed discussion of the contributions of key individuals and surveys a wide range of empirical conditions and developments within the global political economy, including its major institutions. The Encyclopedia has been designed to be eclectic in approach and wide-ranging in coverage. Theoretical entries range from discussions of the definition and scope of the field, through core methodological questions such as rationalism and the structure-agent problem, to surveys of the major theories and approaches employed in the study of the international political economy.

Growth Distribution and Political Change

Growth  Distribution and Political Change Author Malcolm Falkus
ISBN-10 9781349143566
Release 1999-09-17
Pages 307
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Continuing the inequality and development debate originally ushered in by Kuznets, this book extends to the possible sociopolitical disruptions of growing inequality and its ramifications for growth and development. Comparing a range of countries in Asia and beyond, the book examines the relationships between growth, distribution and politics. Theoretical and empirical studies are backed up by discussion of historical developments in this interdisciplinary study which will interest political scientists, sociologists, historians and economists.

Development Economics and Policy

Development Economics and Policy Author David Sapsford
ISBN-10 9781349267699
Release 1998-08-10
Pages 569
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Hans Singer is undoubtedly one of, if not the, world's major scholars in the field of Development Economics. Over the last six decades he has made numerous contributions to the subject both as scholar and practitioner. This book contains 27 essays that were prepared for a conference that was held in Innsbruck Austria in May 1996 to celebrate his 85th birthday and represents a major and important overview of issues in development economics from the most eminent scholars in the field.

Institutional and Political Determinants of Private Participation in Infrastructure

Institutional and Political Determinants of Private Participation in Infrastructure Author
ISBN-10 OCLC:927186882
Release 2014
Pages 40
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We assembled a large panel of project-level technical and financial data and country-level economic, institutional, political, and governance variables to assess the determinants of private financing of infrastructure in emerging markets and developing economies. Controlling for economic characteristics, we find that overall private participation of infrastructure financing increases with freedom from corruption, rule of law, quality of regulations, and decreases with court disputes. We provide plausible explanations of deviations from this pattern when data is disaggregated at the sectoral level. We also found that legal systems--types of democracy or dictatorship--do not play a role in whether the private sector invests in infrastructure. Our results do not vary when controlling for income inequality and across quartiles of experience, country wealth, and wealth per capita. The study shows that upstream "enabling" institutions, policies, and regulations and sector economics need to be addressed simultaneously to facilitate private infrastructure investment financing.

The Oxford Handbook of the Political Economy of International Trade

The Oxford Handbook of the Political Economy of International Trade Author Lisa L. Martin
ISBN-10 9780199981755
Release 2015
Pages 576
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The Oxford Handbook of the Political Economy of International Trade surveys the literature on the politics of international trade and highlights the most exciting recent scholarly developments. The Handbook is focused on work by political scientists that draws extensively on work in economics, but is distinctive in its applications and attention to political features; that is, it takes politics seriously. The Handbook's framework is organized in part along the traditional lines of domestic society-domestic institutions - international interaction, but elaborates this basic framework to showcase the most important new developments in our understanding of the political economy of trade. Within the field of international political economy, international trade has long been and continues to be one of the most vibrant areas of study. Drawing on models of economic interests and integrating them with political models of institutions and society, political scientists have made great strides in understanding the sources of trade policy preferences and outcomes. The 27 chapters in the Handbook include contributions from prominent scholars around the globe, and from multiple theoretical and methodological traditions. The Handbook considers the development of concepts and policies about international trade; the influence of individuals, firms, and societies; the role of domestic and international institutions; and the interaction of trade and other issues, such as monetary policy, environmental challenges, and human rights. Showcasing both established theories and findings and cutting-edge new research, the Handbook is a valuable reference for scholars of political economy.

The Political Economy of Fiscal Consolidation in Japan

The Political Economy of Fiscal Consolidation in Japan Author Toshihiro Ihori
ISBN-10 9784431551270
Release 2014-11-21
Pages 195
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This book investigates the reasons for persistent public deficits and delayed fiscal reform in Japan, placing a special emphasis on political economy aspects. Japan is confronted with the need to pursue fiscal discipline for fiscal consolidation and implement structural reforms for reorganizing fiscal expenditures. Focusing on particular policy fields including social security, female labor supply, public works, and intergovernmental transfer schemes, the book clarifies economic and political elements that have hindered effective steps toward these two goals. Facing population aging and a business downturn, the Japanese government was urged to increase social security expenditures and the budget for Keynesian stimulus policies. As elucidated in the book, the institutional design has worked to over-represent the demands of elderly generations and local interest groups and to expand these expenditures. Rigorous theoretical and numerical analyses reported throughout the book consequently provide readers with insights into incentive designs and institutional reforms necessary for fiscal consolidation, also presenting points of view for public policy and public debate.

Party Government in the New Europe

Party Government in the New Europe Author Hans Keman
ISBN-10 9781136279041
Release 2012-05-31
Pages 280
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This truly comparative volume examines the "life cycle" of party governments in Europe from 1990 onwards, and analyses its role and function in contemporary European parliamentary democracies. The life and the performance of party governments in Europe became more and more volatile and publicly contested. In some cases, it has even challenge the democratic quality of the state. This book presents comparative analyses of party governments from formation and duration, to performance. It brings together some of the foremost scholars researching on party government to evaluate existing theories and compare both the developments in the Western and the ‘new’ Eastern Europe in an empirically-grounded comparative analysis. The book discusses the interaction between various institutions, political parties and policies, and evaluates how institutional change and party behaviour can drive the "life cycle" of party government. Party Government in the New Europe will be of interest to students and scholars of Comparative Politics, Democracy, Government and European Politics.

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics Author Susan Carol Stokes
ISBN-10 0199278482
Release 2007
Pages 1021
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The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics offers a critical survey of the field of empirical political science through the collection of a set of chapters written by 48 top scholars in the discipline of comparative politics

Five Rising Democracies

Five Rising Democracies Author Ted Piccone
ISBN-10 9780815725787
Release 2016-02-23
Pages 250
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Shifting power balances in the world are shaking the foundations of the liberal international order and revealing new fault lines at the intersection of human rights and international security. Will these new global trends help or hinder the world's long struggle for human rights and democracy? The answer depends on the role of five rising democracies—India, Brazil, South Africa, Turkey, and Indonesia—as both examples and supporters of liberal ideas and practices. Ted Piccone analyzes the transitions of these five democracies as their stars rise on the international stage. While they offer important and mainly positive examples of the compatibility of political liberties, economic growth, and human development, their foreign policies swing between interest-based strategic autonomy and a principled concern for democratic progress and human rights. In a multipolar world, the fate of the liberal international order depends on how they reconcile these tendencies.

Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy

Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy Author Daron Acemoglu
ISBN-10 0521855268
Release 2006
Pages 416
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This book systematically explains why some countries are democracies while others are not.

Wage Policy Income Distribution and Democratic Theory

Wage Policy  Income Distribution  and Democratic Theory Author Oren M Levin-Waldman
ISBN-10 9781136881879
Release 2010-11-23
Pages 256
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Wage policy can be broadly defined as a set of institutions designed to bolster the wages of workers, especially for those workers who lack negotiating power. This book concentrates on the relationship between wage policy and the distribution of income and the maintenance of a sustainable democracy. Whereas economists have looked at this issue in relation to labour markets, this book aims to reset the balance by focusing on issues such as equality and democratic theory. This book makes an important contribution to the literature of public policy, political philosophy and political economy. Levin-Waldman argues that wage policy is an important component in the maintenance of democratic society and that a reduction in income inequality can have a positive effect both on personal autonomy and empowerment.

Thinking Beyond Boundaries

Thinking Beyond Boundaries Author Hugh Liebert
ISBN-10 9781421415291
Release 2014-11-19
Pages 256
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"Written under the direction of West Point social sciences faculty for its Student Conference on US Affairs, or SCUSA, the contributors to this edited volume introduce undergraduate students to issues of transnational conflict, providing context to a variety of contemporary issues, such as immigration, terrorism, and environmental security. The goal is to challenge students by sparking policy level debate and formulation of policy recommendations, putting students in the driver's seat and asking them to think as policymakers. Well acquainted with the demands of classroom discussion, the contributors know how to make world politics, international relations, and foreign policy accessible to undergraduate students. The primary question driving the volume is "how does the US promote or even determine an effective and appropriate policy response to boundary-spanning problems?" And if future political and military leaders are all but guaranteed to face the challenge of collective action within the confines of an uncoordinated international system, then what domestic and foreign factors should be considered, what elements brought to the foreground? The book's three part organization--Transnational Challenges and Domestic Sources of U.S. Foreign Policy; Transnational Challenges and Regional Issues in US Foreign Policy; and Transnational Challenges and Opportunities for U.S. Foreign Policy--coupled with topic-recommended reading lists at the end of each chapter will help students develop an approach to the substantial topic of "foreign policy" as a whole, making it more manageable"--

Labor Relations in New Democracies

Labor Relations in New Democracies Author J. Alemán
ISBN-10 9780230106284
Release 2010-04-12
Pages 196
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Labor Relations in New Democracies explores how democratization has changed the material and political fortunes of workers in the new democracies of Europe, Latin America, and East Asia. It also examines how workers have responded to their newly found environment.