Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States Author National Research Council
ISBN-10 9780309142397
Release 2009-07-29
Pages 348
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Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.



Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States Author Policy and Global Affairs
ISBN-10 9780309131308
Release 2009-07-29
Pages 352
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Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.



Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States Author National Institute of Justice
ISBN-10 1298042011
Release 2015-02-15
Pages 354
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This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.



Strengthening forensic science in the United States

Strengthening forensic science in the United States Author United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology (2007). Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation
ISBN-10 PSU:000066761440
Release 2009
Pages 129
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Strengthening forensic science in the United States has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Strengthening forensic science in the United States also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Strengthening forensic science in the United States book for free.



Forensic Evidence in Court

Forensic Evidence in Court Author Craig Adam
ISBN-10 9781119054436
Release 2016-07-12
Pages 336
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The interpretation and evaluation of scientific evidence and its presentation in a court of law is central both to the role of the forensic scientist as an expert witness and to the interests of justice. This book aims to provide a thorough and detailed discussion of the principles and practice of evidence interpretation and evaluation by using real cases by way of illustration. The presentation is appropriate for students of forensic science or related disciplines at advanced undergraduate and master's level or for practitioners engaged in continuing professional development activity. The book is structured in three sections. The first sets the scene by describing and debating the issues around the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence presented to the court. In the second section, the principles underpinning interpretation and evaluation are explained, including discussion of those formal statistical methods founded on Bayesian inference. The following chapters present perspectives on the evaluation and presentation of evidence in the context of a single type or class of scientific evidence, from DNA to the analysis of documents. For each, the science underpinning the analysis and interpretation of the forensic materials is explained, followed by the presentation of cases which illustrate the variety of approaches that have been taken in providing expert scientific opinion.



Support for Forensic Science Research

Support for Forensic Science Research Author Committee on Strengthening Forensic Science at the National Institute of Justice
ISBN-10 0309376459
Release 2015-11-03
Pages 118
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Reliable and valid forensic science analytic techniques are critical to a credible, fair, and evidence-based criminal justice system. There is widespread agreement that the scientific foundation of some currently available forensic science methods needs strengthening and that additional, more efficient techniques are urgently needed. These needs can only be met through sustained research programs explicitly designed to ensure and improve the reliability and validity of current methods and to foster the development and use of new and better techniques. This task is challenging due to the broad nature of the field. Concerns have been raised repeatedly about the ability of the criminal justice system to collect and analyze evidence efficiently and to be fair in its verdicts. Although significant progress has been made in some forensic science disciplines, the forensic science community still faces many challenges. Federal leadership, particularly in regard to research and the scientific validation of forensic science methods, is needed to help meet the pressing issues facing state and local jurisdictions. This report reviews the progress made by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to advance forensic science research since the 2009 report, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward and the 2010 report, Strengthening the National Institute of Justice. Support for Forensic Science Research examines the ways in which NIJ develops its forensic science research priorities and communicates those priorities as well as its findings to the scientific and forensic practitioner communities in order to determine the impact of NIJ forensic science research programs and how that impact can be enhanced.



DNA Technology in Forensic Science

DNA Technology in Forensic Science Author Committee on DNA Technology in Forensic Science
ISBN-10 9780309045872
Release 1992-01-01
Pages 200
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Matching DNA samples from crime scenes and suspects is rapidly becoming a key source of evidence for use in our justice system. DNA Technology in Forensic Science offers recommendations for resolving crucial questions that are emerging as DNA typing becomes more widespread. The volume addreses key issues: Quality and reliability in DNA typing, including the introduction of new technologies, problems of standardization, and approaches to certification. DNA typing in the courtroom, including issues of population genetics, levels of understanding among judges and juries, and admissibility. Societal issues, such as privacy of DNA data, storage of samples and data, and the rights of defendants to quality testing technology. Combining this original volume with the new update--The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence--provides the complete, up-to-date picture of this highly important and visible topic. This volume offers important guidance to anyone working with this emerging law enforcement tool: policymakers, specialists in criminal law, forensic scientists, geneticists, researchers, faculty, and students.



Crime Laboratory Management

Crime Laboratory Management Author Jami J. St. Clair
ISBN-10 0126640513
Release 2003
Pages 290
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Crime Laboratory Management is the first book to address the unique operational, administrative, and political issues involved in managing a forensic laboratory. It guides managers and supervisors through essential tasks ranging from hiring and training of staff to quality control, facilities management, and public relations. Author Jami St. Clair has more than 20 years experience in forensic science and served as President of the American Society of Crime Lab Directors in 1998-1999. She and her colleagues have designed this book to be useful for supervisors at every level. With its combination of classic management theories and practical information, this unique resource will help managers ensure that their laboratories operate efficiently and survive the intense scrutiny of today's criminal justice system. It will also help students and professional with an interest in forensic science and crime laboratory operation to better understand the functions of labs and the critical role they play in handling and analyzing evidence. * Shows how to handle a wide variety of administrative and operational issues in forensic laboratories * Provides new and experienced managers with practical information from qualified experts * Outlines standards and procedures to help ensure quality results from laboratory analyses



Forensic Science in Court

Forensic Science in Court Author Hon. Donald Shelton
ISBN-10 9781442201897
Release 2010-10-16
Pages 196
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Forensic Science in Court explores the legal implications of forensic science—an increasingly important and complex part of the justice system. Judge Donald Shelton provides an accessible overview of the legal aissues, from the history of evidence in court, to "gatekeeper" judges determining what evidence can be allowed, to the "CSI effect" in juries. The book describes and evaluates various kinds of evidence, including DNA, fingerprints, handwriting, hair, bite marks, tool marks, firearms and bullets, fire and arson investigation, and bloodstain evidence. Assessing the strengths and limitations of each kind of evidence, the author also discusses how they can contribute to identifying the "who," "how," and "whether" questions that arise in criminal prosecutions. Author Donald Shelton draws on the depth of his experiences as courtroom prosecutor, professor, and judge, to provide a well-rounded look at these increasingly critical issues. Case studies throughout help bring the issues to life and show how forensic science has been used, both successfully and not, in real-world situations.



The Neuroscience of Handwriting

The Neuroscience of Handwriting Author Michael P. Caligiuri
ISBN-10 9781466559189
Release 2012-04-05
Pages 267
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The Daubert trilogy of U.S. Supreme Court cases has established that scientific expert testimony must be based on science grounded in empirical research. As such, greater scrutiny is being placed on questioned document examination generally, and handwriting comparison in particular. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, The Neuroscience of Handwriting: Applications in Forensic Document Examination examines the essential neuroscientific principles underlying normal and pathological hand motor control and handwriting. Topics discussed include: Fundamental principles in the neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of hand motor control and their application to research in handwriting The epidemiology, pathophysiology, and motor characteristics of neurogenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, essential tremor, and motor neuron disease and their effects on handwriting Psychotropic medications prescribed for depression, bipolar disorder, and psychosis; their mechanisms of action; and their effect on motor behavior and handwriting The impact of substance abuse on handwriting An overview of the aging process and its effects on motor control and handwriting The kinematic approach and new findings on the kinematic analyses of genuine, disguised, and forged signatures The authors’ laboratory research on authentic and forged signatures An essential resource for professionals and researchers in the forensic documentation examination and legal communities, this volume provides a window on the scientific process of signature and handwriting authentication, integrating the extensive research on neural processes and exploring how disease, medication, and advanced age alter these processes.



Failed Evidence

Failed Evidence Author David A. Harris
ISBN-10 9780814744666
Release 2012-09-03
Pages 269
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With the popularity of crime dramas like CSI focusing on forensic science, and increasing numbers of police and prosecutors making wide-spread use of DNA, high-tech science seems to have become the handmaiden of law enforcement. But this is a myth,asserts law professor and nationally known expert on police profiling David A. Harris. In fact, most of law enforcement does not embrace science—it rejects it instead, resisting it vigorously. The question at the heart of this book is why. »» Eyewitness identifications procedures using simultaneous lineups—showing the witness six persons together,as police have traditionally done—produces a significant number of incorrect identifications. »» Interrogations that include threats of harsh penalties and untruths about the existence of evidence proving the suspect’s guilt significantly increase the prospect of an innocent person confessing falsely. »» Fingerprint matching does not use probability calculations based on collected and standardized data to generate conclusions, but rather human interpretation and judgment.Examiners generally claim a zero rate of error – an untenable claim in the face of publicly known errors by the best examiners in the U.S. Failed Evidence explores the real reasons that police and prosecutors resist scientific change, and it lays out a concrete plan to bring law enforcement into the scientific present. Written in a crisp and engaging style, free of legal and scientific jargon, Failed Evidence will explain to police and prosecutors, political leaders and policy makers, as well as other experts and anyone else who cares about how law enforcement does its job, where we should go from here. Because only if we understand why law enforcement resists science will we be able to break through this resistance and convince police and prosecutors to rely on the best that science has to offer. Justice demands no less. Visit the author's blog here.



Inside the Cell

Inside the Cell Author Erin E. Murphy
ISBN-10 9781568584690
Release 2015
Pages 400
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DNA typing -- the analysis of a biological sample for a person's genetic signature - has led to the unprecedented exoneration of hundreds of wrongfully convicted people. And every day we hear stories about how police used DNA to capture a dangerous rapist or killer. Reading these accounts, it is hard not to think of DNA typing as an unmitigated good. Who can argue with a technology that helps catch bad guys and correct law enforcement mistakes? But there is a darker side to this story -- a version less likely to play out on dramatic television shows. InInside the Cell, Erin Murphy shows how DNA typing can be subject to subject to misuse, mistake, and error, and lead to a police state run amok. Murphy shows the perils of a society in which stop-and-frisk” becomes stop-and-spit,” or in which police pose undercover to get a DNA sample from your discarded lunch. Already, police can collect DNA when making an arrest, sometimes before charging a person with a crime. The government is building a massive DNA database, stockpiling samples from a third of the population, and the laws regulating what they can and cannot do with them are weak. Murphy shows how this invites the riskiest kind of genetic surveillance imaginable. Just because DNA testing is good science does not mean that it is foolproof. Faulty forensic science is the number two factor leading to wrongful conviction, and yet we have done little to improve the use of science in criminal justice. Forensic labs are largely unregulated and lacking in meaningful oversight standards, as evidenced by the involvement of nearly every major forensic lab in a DNA-related scandal. We have invested hundreds of millions of dollars to collect DNA samples from convicted offenders. But we have spent far less to hire analysts to wade through huge backlogs, and virtually nothing to ensure that evidence will ever even collected from the crime scene. We are at a critical moment in time for forensic DNA testing programs. We may continue on the road we are on now, with our blind faith and limitless enthusiasm for handing over our genetic secrets to the police for them to use at their unfettered discretion. Or, as Murphy advises here, we can pause to take stock of our failures and our successes, appreciate what is truly at stake and what is truly to be gained, and change course toward a smarter DNA policy that is in everybody's interest.



Criminal and Forensic Evidence

Criminal and Forensic Evidence Author Robert J. Goodwin
ISBN-10 9780769894393
Release 2014-01-03
Pages
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This unique casebook adopts a modern, comprehensive approach to the study of evidence issues that arise in the context of criminal trial litigation. It covers evidentiary issues associated with the admission of forensic evidence, including expert testimony, as well as traditional evidence issues, such as evidence of prior bad acts offered for purposes other than to prove propensity, and evidence of a rape victim's prior sexual behavior. The materials are presented in two parts that allow for a Criminal Evidence course focused solely on forensic science, solely on traditional criminal evidentiary issues, or a combination of both topics. The Third Edition provides students the most current and comprehensive examination of the Supreme Court's Sixth Amendment Confrontation Clause jurisprudence emanating from its recent decisions in Crawford v. Washington, Davis v. Washington, Giles v. California, and Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts. The new edition includes an extensive analysis of how federal and state courts post-Crawford have applied the Supreme Court's "testimonial" evidence and "primary purpose" tests for determining whether the admission of hearsay statements violates the Sixth Amendment right of confrontation. Forensic science issues are also updated and include materials on the scientific reliability and admissibility of traditional forensic techniques generated by the release of the 2009 National Academy of Science's report on Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. Forensic science issues include: • How courts have applied the Daubert test in criminal cases to determine the admissibility of both scientific and non-scientific forensic techniques; • debate over the reliability and admissibility of traditional forensic techniques such as fingerprint evidence; • issues related to the admissibility of DNA evidence; and • The admissibility of syndrome and profile evidence, including rape trauma, child abuse and battered woman syndromes. This eBook features links to Lexis Advance for further legal research options.



Forensic Chemistry Handbook

Forensic Chemistry Handbook Author Lawrence Kobilinsky
ISBN-10 111806223X
Release 2011-11-17
Pages 528
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A concise, robust introduction to the various topics covered by the discipline of forensic chemistry The Forensic Chemistry Handbook focuses on topics in each of the major chemistry-related areas of forensic science. With chapter authors that span the forensic chemistry field, this book exposes readers to the state of the art on subjects such as serology (including blood, semen, and saliva), DNA/molecular biology, explosives and ballistics, toxicology, pharmacology, instrumental analysis, arson investigation, and various other types of chemical residue analysis. In addition, the Forensic Chemistry Handbook: Covers forensic chemistry in a clear, concise, and authoritative way Brings together in one volume the key topics in forensics where chemistry plays an important role, such as blood analysis, drug analysis, urine analysis, and DNA analysis Explains how to use analytical instruments to analyze crime scene evidence Contains numerous charts, illustrations, graphs, and tables to give quick access to pertinent information Media focus on high-profile trials like those of Scott Peterson or Kobe Bryant have peaked a growing interest in the fascinating subject of forensic chemistry. For those readers who want to understand the mechanisms of reactions used in laboratories to piece together crime scenes—and to fully grasp the chemistry behind it—this book is a must-have.



Forensic Entomology

Forensic Entomology Author Dorothy Gennard
ISBN-10 9781118684887
Release 2013-04-30
Pages 248
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This invaluable text provides a concise introduction to entomology in a forensic context and is also a practical guide to collecting entomological samples at the crime scene. Forensic Entomology: An Introduction: Assumes no prior knowledge of either entomology or biology Provides background information about the procedures carried out by the professional forensic entomologist in order to determine key information about post-mortem interval presented by insect evidence Includes practical tasks and further reading to enhance understanding of the subject and to enable the reader to gain key laboratory skills and a clear understanding of insect life cycles, the identification features of insects, and aspects of their ecology Glossary, photographs, the style of presentation and numerous illustrations have been designed to assist in the identification of insects associated with the corpse; keys are included to help students make this identification This book is an essential resource for undergraduate Forensic Science and Criminology students and those on conversion postgraduate M.Sc. courses in Forensic Science. It is also useful for Scenes of Crime Officers undertaking diploma studies and Scene Investigating Officers.



Disaster Resilience

Disaster Resilience Author Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy
ISBN-10 9780309261500
Release 2012-11-29
Pages 244
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No person or place is immune from disasters or disaster-related losses. Infectious disease outbreaks, acts of terrorism, social unrest, or financial disasters in addition to natural hazards can all lead to large-scale consequences for the nation and its communities. Communities and the nation thus face difficult fiscal, social, cultural, and environmental choices about the best ways to ensure basic security and quality of life against hazards, deliberate attacks, and disasters. Beyond the unquantifiable costs of injury and loss of life from disasters, statistics for 2011 alone indicate economic damages from natural disasters in the United States exceeded $55 billion, with 14 events costing more than a billion dollars in damages each. One way to reduce the impacts of disasters on the nation and its communities is to invest in enhancing resilience--the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from and more successfully adapt to adverse events. Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative addresses the broad issue of increasing the nation's resilience to disasters. This book defines "national resilience", describes the state of knowledge about resilience to hazards and disasters, and frames the main issues related to increasing resilience in the United States. It also provide goals, baseline conditions, or performance metrics for national resilience and outlines additional information, data, gaps, and/or obstacles that need to be addressed to increase the nation's resilience to disasters. Additionally, the book's authoring committee makes recommendations about the necessary approaches to elevate national resilience to disasters in the United States. Enhanced resilience allows better anticipation of disasters and better planning to reduce disaster losses-rather than waiting for an event to occur and paying for it afterward. Disaster Resilience confronts the topic of how to increase the nation's resilience to disasters through a vision of the characteristics of a resilient nation in the year 2030. Increasing disaster resilience is an imperative that requires the collective will of the nation and its communities. Although disasters will continue to occur, actions that move the nation from reactive approaches to disasters to a proactive stance where communities actively engage in enhancing resilience will reduce many of the broad societal and economic burdens that disasters can cause.



National Research Council s Publication Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States a Path Forward

National Research Council s Publication  Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States  a Path Forward Author United States. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security
ISBN-10 UOM:39015090380109
Release 2009
Pages 132
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National Research Council s Publication Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States a Path Forward has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from National Research Council s Publication Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States a Path Forward also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full National Research Council s Publication Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States a Path Forward book for free.